APJIS Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems


The Journal for Information Professionals

Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems (APJIS), a Scopus and ABDC indexed journal, is a
flagship journal of the information systems (IS) field in the Asia Pacific region.

ISSN 2288-5404 (Print) / ISSN 2288-6818 (Online)

Editor : Seung Hyun Kim

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Date December 2012
Vol. No. Vol. 22 No. 4
Page 7~29
Title Factors Influencing the Adoption of Location-Based Smartphone Applications:An Application of the Privacy Calculus Model
Author Hoon S. Cha
Keyword IS Usage, Location-Based Services(LBS), Smartphone, App, Privacy Calculus
Abstract Smartphone and its applications (i.e. apps) are increasingly penetrating consumer markets. According to a recent report Korea Communications Commission, nearly 50% of mobile subscribers in South Korea are smartphone users that accounts for over 25 million people. In particular, the importance of smartphone has risen as a geospatially-aware device that provides various location-based services (LBS) equipped with GPS capability. The popular LBS include map and navigation, traffic and transportation updates, shopping and coupon services, and location-sensitive social network services. Overall, the emerging location-based smartphone apps (LBA) offer significant value by providing greater connectivity, personalization, and information and entertainment in a location-specific context. Conversely, the rapid growth of LBA and their benefits have been accompanied by concerns over the collection and dissemination of individual users??personal information through ongoing tracking of their location, identity, preferences, and social behaviors. The majority of LBA users tend to agree and consent to the LBA provider???terms and privacy policy on use of location data to get the immediate services. This tendency further increases the potential risks of unprotected exposure of personal information and serious invasion and breaches of individual privacy. To address the complex issues surrounding LBA particularly the user???behavioral perspective, this study applied the privacy calculus model (PCM) to explore the factors that influence the adoption of LBA. According to PCM, consumers are engaged in a dynamic adjustment process in which privacy risks are weighted against benefits of information disclosure. Consistent with the principal notion of PCM, we investigated how individual users make a risk-benefit assessment under which personalized service and locatability act as benefit-side factors and information privacy risks act as a risk-side factor accompanying LBA adoption. In addition, we consider the moderating role of trust on the service providers in the prohibiting effects of privacy risks on user intention to adopt LBA. Further we include perceived ease of use and usefulness as additional constructs to examine whether the technology acceptance model (TAM) can be applied in the context of LBA adoption. The research model with ten (10) hypotheses was tested using data gathered 98 respondents through a quasi-experimental survey method. During the survey, each participant was asked to navigate the website the experimental simulation of a LBA allows the participant to purchase time-and-location sensitive discounted tickets for nearby stores. Structural equations modeling using partial least square validated the instrument and the proposed model. The results showed that six (6) out of ten (10) hypotheses were supported. On the subject of the core PCM, H2 (locatability ??intention to use LBA) and H3 (privacy risks ??intention to use LBA) were supported, while H1 (personalization ??intention to use LBA) was not supported. Further, we could not find any interaction effects (personalization X privacy risks, H4 & locatability X privacy risks, H5) on the intention to use LBA. In terms of privacy risks and trust, as mentioned above we found the significant negative influence privacy risks on intention to use (H3), but positive influence trust, which supported H6 (trust ??intention to use LBA). The moderating effect of trust on the negative relationship between privacy risks and intention to use LBA was tested and confirmed by supporting H7 (privacy risks X trust ??intention to use LBA). The two hypotheses regarding to the TAM, including H8 (perceived ease of use ??perceived usefulness) and H9 (perceived ease of use ??intention to use LBA) were supported; however, H10 (perceived effectiveness ??intention to use LBA) was not supported. Results of this study offer the following key findings and implications. First the application of PCM was found to be a good analysis framework in the context of LBA adoption. Many of the hypotheses in the model were confirmed and the high value of R2 (i.,e., 51%) indicated a good fit of the model. In particular, locatability and privacy risks are found to be the appropriate PCM-based antecedent variables. Second, the existence of moderating effect of trust on service provider suggests that the same marginal change in the level of privacy risks may differentially influence the intention to use LBA. That is, while the privacy risks increasingly become important social issues and will negatively influence the intention to use LBA, it is critical for LBA providers to build consumer trust and confidence to successfully mitigate this negative impact. Lastly, we could not find sufficient evidence that the intention to use LBA is influenced by perceived usefulness, which has been very well supported in most previous TAM research. This may suggest that more future research should examine the validity of applying TAM and further extend or modify it in the context of LBA or other similar smartphone apps.

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